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Main-sub-chain synchronization refers to the complete process of generating sub-chain blocks and synchronizing to the main chain for consensus recording, and is also the core content of the multi-chain system.
This process mainly includes three contents, one is the selection of sub-chain verification nodes and proposal nodes, the second is the creation of sub-chain transactions, block generation packaging and proposals, and the third is the verification and consensus of the main chain's proposal blocks.
1. The verification nodes and proposal nodes of the sub-chain are randomly selected from the verification node pool by the main chain according to the VRF algorithm. These nodes run the main chain node program at the same time, and the proposal node will be responsible for the block generation and submission of the designated sub-chain. The proposal submission work should be completed within the stage designated by the main chain.
2. The participating nodes of the sub-chain generate transactions, and the proposal node is responsible for packaging all sub-chain transactions in this stage into a proposal block and submitting it to the main chain;
3. After the block proposal of the sub-chain is submitted to the main chain, the corresponding verification node of the sub-chain will perform block consensus verification based on the AI-BFT consensus algorithm. When more than 2/3 of the verification nodes pass the verification of the block, the sub-chain will verify the block. The chain block reached final confirmation. The block header will be entered into the main chain block and will be stored globally after the main chain consensus is verified to ensure that the sub-chain block information cannot be tampered with and is unique.

The value route from "value island" to "interconnection".
In the current blockchain world, each blockchain has an independent and vertical autonomous system. Nodes verify the transactions of each chain, making these blockchains gradually become “islands of value” and become more and more like “local area networks”. As a result, asset exchange and communication between chains are very difficult. The Canal system aims to establish a scalable and interoperable cross-chain system, realize the interconnection between blockchains, evolve the "local area network" into the "Internet", and realize the value and assets between the "value islands" of the blockchain And the free flow of information.
AI proposes a value routing main chain-main chain cross-chain system-Canal, which opens up completely different blockchain systems through channels similar to "canals". Compared with a single blockchain system, Canal can achieve significant growth in transaction processing capabilities by expanding multiple chains, and at the same time, it can help users flexibly deploy differentiated services according to their needs, and provide users with high-quality blockchain services
Bitcoin today is essentially a single-chain system. However, with the rapid increase in the number of blockchain users and transactions, the problems faced by the single-chain system have become increasingly prominent:
1. The network-wide consensus efficiency of a single chain is limited by the scale of consensus nodes
The ever-increasing transaction and data block information makes the blockchain increasingly bloated, and the parallel ability of block generation is insufficient. The existing Ethereum EVM and others need to execute and process transactions in sequence. At the same time, for security and decentralization considerations, each full node will execute each transaction and store the entire state tree. There are some technologies to solve the problem of transaction scalability, such as
Bitcoin-NG, Lightning Network, Raiden Network, but did not solve the state scalability problem. We hope to be able to process more than 10,000 transactions per second without forcing each node to become a supercomputer or forcing each node to store more state data, which requires a comprehensive solution. The sharding technology is an effective attempt to solve the single-chain problem. A solution has been proposed, but it may take 2 to 5 years to fully expand using the sharding technology.
2. The single-chain network-wide backup mechanism reduces storage efficiency
The core limitation of public chains is that every transaction must be processed by every node in the network.
Every operation performed on the public chain blockchain must be processed by every node in the network. The design of the blockchain is like this, which is the part that makes the public chain authoritative. A node does not need to rely on other nodes to tell it what the current state of the blockchain is, it will figure it out by itself. This puts a fundamental limitation on transaction throughput: it cannot be higher than the transaction throughput we require for a single node. Take the most typical Cryptokitties application as an example, which is enough for serious network congestion. Since many active users request multiple transactions every day, this places a heavy burden on the public chain network. Many transactions that previously took a few seconds will be delayed to 10 minutes or fail completely.
3. The single chain system cannot meet the diverse demands of the business
It is impractical to move the entire real society to a blockchain. The real society itself creates value by industry and economic fields. Each field maintains its own independent value economic system, and the single-chain system cannot satisfy value. The actual demand for system diversity. Therefore, a single chain cannot meet the differentiated demands of various businesses or industries for the characteristics of blockchain technology. For example, some businesses focus on real-time requirements, and some businesses focus on reliability requirements.
To solve the above problems, there are three seemingly "simple solutions." The first simple solution is to abandon the expansion of a single blockchain, and users can use many different similar blockchains to achieve the purpose of increasing throughput, but the security is reduced. The second solution is to increase the block size, which is familiar to everyone. The main problem is to increase the processing pressure of user nodes, which causes many individual users to give up verification, which may pose a greater risk of centralization. The third solution is joint mining. In this method, users can have many chains, but these chains share the same mining resources and capabilities, which actually increases the pressure on miners.
AI proposes a multi-layer polymorphic main chain-sub-chain multi-chain system, which, as the name suggests, allows each business to run on their own "tracks" more efficiently, and at the same time will not cause operating errors or even systems due to "track bifurcation" collapse. Sub-chain synchronization does not simply split one chain into multiple, but takes into account factors such as storage efficiency, throughput, and business differences to create differentiated sub-chains for different businesses, and rely on the main chain for higher-level Consensus verification, without reducing security, improves the processing performance of the blockchain and meets the diverse demands of the business.
The multi-chain system is generally divided into a two-layer structure of the main chain and the sub-chain, and the transaction processing, state storage, transaction download and broadcasting of different businesses are dispersed across sub-chains and nodes. The multi-chain system includes two types of chains, one is the main chain, and there is only one main chain, which is responsible for the selection of sub-chain verification nodes, the selection of sub-chain block sponsors, the storage of the final state of the sub-chain, and the punishment of malicious behavior; the other is Sub-chains can have multiple sub-chains, and different sub-chains can be built according to different business characteristics. The underlying technology of the main chain and the sub-chain are interoperable, and they can share the same blockchain architecture, account tree structure, and consensus algorithm system. However, in the specific implementation process, the technology can be selected according to the special effects of the sub-chain.